平成27年杉浦賞論文〔ウイルス 第 66 巻 第 1 号，pp.101-116，2016〕(Influenza virus Research report)
Functional analysis of glyco-molecules that bind with influenza virus
Influenza A virus (IAV) recognizes terminal sialic acid of sialoglyco-conjugates on host cells through the viral envelope glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), followed by initiation of entry into the cells. Molecular species of sialic acid are largely divided into two moieties: N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). A receptor for IAV infection generally means Neu5Ac. Almost all equine IAVs and some human, swine, and duck IAVs bind not only to Neu5Ac but also to Neu5Gc. In nonhuman animals, Neu5Gc has been detected in swine and equine tracheas and the duck colon, which are the main replication sites of mammalian and avian IAVs.
Therefore, Neu5Gc in these sites has been suggested to be a functional receptor for IAV infection.
Humans cannot synthesize Neu5Gc due to a genetic defect of the Neu5Gc-synthesizing enzyme. We evaluated the receptor function of Neu5Gc in IAV infection in human cells. Our results indicated that Neu5Gc expression on the surface of human cells is not a functional receptor for IAV infection and that it has a negative effect on infectivity of IAV possessing Neu5Gc binding ability. IAV also binds to non-sialo 3-O-sulfated galactosylceramide (sulfatide). Sulfatide has been suggested to be a functional receptor for IAV infection.
However, we have shown that sulfatide is not a functional receptor for IAV infection and that the binding of HA with sulfatide enhances progeny virus production. It is expected that functions of these glyco-molecules can be used in prevention and development of new drugs against IAV.